Timber Construction Doesn’t Have to Be “All or Nothing”

How Hybrid Curtain Walls Can Drive Sustainable Innovation in Architecture

December 5, 2018

Principal, NBBJ

Editor’s Note: This post was adapted from the white paper “Hybrid Timber: Performative, biophilic and beautiful” [PDF].

The increased use of timber in construction is a growing and robust opportunity. Wood evokes deep passion and motivation, but why? For one, it’s exciting to have technological and structural advancement within an industry that has been fairly constant since wood balloon framing was invented.

In addition, the prospect of managing our forests sustainably is the future. It supports the use of wood while avoiding the use of old growth species, instead using young saplings or beetle kill forests. It creates sustained carbon capture by circumventing the carbon release that occurs at the end of a tree’s life through decomposition, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Other benefits include low embodied energy, low thermal conductivity compared to aluminum or steel, better indoor air quality (IAQ), biophilic connections supporting a sense of well-being and health, and the outperformance of other building materials “cradle-to-cradle.”

The use of wood in curtain wall construction, in particular, is an emerging trend. A typical approach to long-span exterior curtain wall design is an aluminum curtain wall framing with secondary steel support—but this convention is being challenged by the use of wood as the primary structural support of the glazing.

Given the industry’s unfamiliarity incorporating wood within typical curtain wall assemblies, this proves to be a challenge, for several reasons:

  • Interest in bidding: The curtain wall market has been busy, making it difficult to draw interest in bidding, especially for smaller scale work.
  • Atypicality: The use of wood is not familiar to most large-scale builders.
  • Cost: The prior two variables drive cost upwards, even though the cost of glue-laminated timber is more cost-effective than steel at similar spans.
  • Engineering: Wood does not possess the same properties as steel, and in fact its strength varies by species.

However, the appropriate application of wood is not a matter of “all or nothing.” Hybrid options using wood as the lateral supporting system or as a dead load support, combined with more conventional aluminum systems or a semi-unitized curtain wall system, can yield a more conventional and familiar system design, making wood a more viable option for cost and schedule.

In one example I worked on, the curtain wall subcontractor provided the engineering of the curtain wall and attachments to the glue-laminated timber, and the structural engineer of record provided the engineering of glue-laminated timber and its attachment to the primary structure of the building, similar to the use of a more conventional secondary steel system.

In another example, the curtain wall subcontractor provided the entire engineering of the composite system, including the wood dead load supports, which transfer the window system loads to the primary structure.

With both of these options, the curtain wall consultants worked closely with the full engineering team as the point of intersection and peer-review for the system as a whole. Wood suppliers provided design information on the wood and glue-laminated timbers available, and communicated their unique strength characteristics by species to the design team.

Essential to the success of these projects was our strategic and proactive planning toward connecting markets and suppliers and building consensus between them, defining engineering roles and responsibilities, and effectively addressing fire and combustibility concerns.

Photo © Lawrence Anderson

Building a proper team with supportive and knowledgeable industry partnerships is paramount in being able to meet these challenges with clarity. Therefore, it is critical to partner with both an experienced timber/curtain wall engineer and forestry partners that have an in-depth knowledge of the process and the fluency to ask the right questions at the right time to support success and mitigate risk. I also recommend partnering with local fire authorities early in the process, onboarding them to the use of timber prior to permit submission.

Our hope is to create a ripple effect for the imperative change needed at a larger, industry-wide scale. Similar to code related energy requirements, only larger-scale demand will propel cross-industry advancement and expertise. This will drive innovation towards higher performance, reductions in our carbon footprint, less harmful chemical dependency and beautiful biophilic outcomes. The ultimate outcome will enhance our human experience with respect for our planet.

For more on timber construction, please read my white paper “Hybrid Timber: Performative, biophilic and beautiful” [PDF].

Banner photo courtesy of NBBJ/Sean Airhart.

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When Nursing Meets Architecture

Building a Unique Nurse Consultant Role in Healthcare Design

September 5, 2018

Partner, NBBJ

Editor’s Note: This post was originally published on Medscape. It was coauthored by Kristina A. Krail, RN, BSN, MPH, and Teri Oelrich, RN, BSN, MBA.

Nurses as Design Consultants in Architecture

As a nurse, have you ever watched in wonder the marvel of a new hospital rising out of the ground? Are you curious about the history of your campus or building — how it came to be or who created the design? Have you enjoyed serving on a committee when your organization was planning a new building, unit, or renovation? Was there ever a time in your nursing practice when you were frustrated with the design of your work setting and asked yourself, “What were they thinking?”

If you answered “yes” to any of these questions, you may be interested to know about the small but growing group of nurses who work directly with architects, engineers, and construction managers to build or renovate healthcare facilities. Employed as clinical consultants, project managers, planners, data analysts, or group facilitators, these nurses play a vital role at the cornerstone where the design and healthcare industries meet. By representing the various constituents through a keen understanding of the perspectives of each (and the language they use), and by leveraging those effective interpersonal skills honed as healthcare providers, nurses employed in this serve a vital role in all stages of the design process.

This area of specialty is relatively new. In 1989, the architecture firm NBBJ became one of the first to employ full-time nurses after I completed my MBA and responded to a NBBJ job posting for healthcare consulting. Today, I’m a partner in the multimillion dollar company.

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Co-author Kris Krail (at right)

At NBBJ I am joined by, among others, Kris Krail, who came to the firm serendipitously after a long career in nursing administration serving as a chief nursing officer at a variety of hospitals. She was excited to join an architecture firm because her father was a draftsman, she was active in preserving historical buildings, and the most enjoyable times during her administrative practice were when her hospitals were in a building mode.

Although the American Nurses Association does not yet recognize this type of work as its own specialty, it does direct interested professionals to the Nursing Institute for Healthcare Design — a 150-person organization of like-minded professionals with a common goal of integrating clinical expertise into the planning and design of healthcare environments.

The Role of Design Consultant

Nurses in the architecture, engineering, and construction industries must possess leadership qualities, demonstrate emotional intelligence, and be nurse experts in their field of functional or clinical specialty. We work both internally within a project team and externally with healthcare clients, so the ability to collaborate and communicate is paramount, and well-honed writing and public speaking skills are essential. They must also be comfortable and self-assured enough to interact with all client levels of personnel, from entry-level service staff to physicians and board members. An advanced degree may be required, but more important is the ability to demonstrate astute organizational skills and manage projects in a self-directed way.

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Co-author Teri Oelrich (at left)

The work itself and the benefits derived from the role are also varied, which makes the job enjoyable for us. No two days are ever alike; joy comes from interacting with a variety of people both within our firm as well as on the client side. Our nursing and healthcare expertise is relied upon extensively, but our “people skills” are also counted on, because architects are classic introverts. We achieve great satisfaction through building coalitions, managing conflict, and facilitating teams in resolving problems. There are always numerous opportunities to teach and mentor — another favorite nursing skill that gets tapped into often.

It’s hardly an easy job. We are called upon to balance priorities, often at odds, between building requirements and patient care or staff needs. Resource allocation — staffing, dollars, space, and time — continues to be a challenge for all involved. We have to go where our clients are, and so some travel is entailed, a requirement that either fits into one’s work/life balance equation or it doesn’t. And there are always deadlines, tight schedules, and sometimes late nights.

Still, the satisfaction realized by being involved in creating a new setting for patient care is unmatched. The opportunity to translate the needs of staff, patients, and families to those who design and build those settings creates a legacy that makes an impact for years to come — a legacy of spaces that are not just newer but also better, more efficient, safer, and more healing.

Banner image courtesy of NBBJ.

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What Does the Future of Urban Healthcare Look Like?

Thoughts on a ‘Healthcare Quarter’

August 6, 2018

Principal, NBBJ

Editor’s Note: This post derives from an NBBJ-hosted breakfast talk at the British Library in London focused on the future of the NHS. NBBJ Partner David Lewis was joined by speakers Jodie Eastwood, Chief Executive of the Knowledge Quarter; Peter Ward, Director of Real Estate Development at King’s College London: Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation; and Richard Darch, Chief Executive of the healthcare consultancy Archus.

As we celebrate the 70th year of the NHS, the future of healthcare in the UK has arguably never been a hotter topic with no shortage of debate on how the world’s largest publicly funded health service will survive.

The people who work and care within the NHS remain its most valuable asset and they will continue to shape national pride in what polls have shown symbolises ‘what is great about Britain’.

But what about its places? How is the public healthcare estate adapting to the demands of an ageing population, new technologies and severe financial pressures? And how will it look in 10, 20 and 30 years’ time?

 

Creating ‘health engines’

Healthcare estates should be spaces where everyone comes together for the benefit of healthcare. Not in some utopian dream but in the form of ‘health engines’ that combine and convert the power of healthcare, research and development and industry to deliver positive progress. Instead of selling off surplus land for residential use and reducing the NHS estate, there is potential to create health ‘eco-systems’ in our cities — healthcare quarters with hospitals acting as anchor tenants surrounded by layers of research and wellness services, step-down care, commercial tenants and public social spaces.

These aspirations chime with the concept for a ‘health return’ from public assets, land and buildings to promote healthy lifestyle and wellbeing.

 

Everyone needs good neighbours

The Cambridge Biomedical Campus and Royal Liverpool University Hospital demonstrate how healthcare, research and commercial developments can benefit from being co-located. It’s important that spaces knit healthcare sites back into cities and their urban context, promote synergies between healthcare and education and create societal hubs that encourage public access and community use.

This is the point of view championed by Jodie Eastwood of the Knowledge Quarter, a partnership of more than 90 knowledge-rich organisations based around King’s Cross, St Pancras, Bloomsbury and Euston. Jodie espouses the power of cross-disciplinary partnerships saying “the real value of collaboration comes when you cross sectors.”

 

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At the Quadram Institute in Norwich, researchers and clinicians collaborate around an open atrium overlooked by research labs and balconies. (Photo courtesy of Sean Airhart/NBBJ)

Science on show

However, co-locating sectors alone is not enough. We must create buildings that actively promote formal and informal collaboration; spaces that showcase health and science in one place.

Blurring spatial boundaries can bridge the gap between fundamental research and application in practice, allowing those differing aspects of innovation to drive each other.

At the same time putting science on show, making it accessible to the public, helps to demystify scientific endeavour, while sowing seeds for education and future talent.

The Quadram Institute in Norwich is a case in point, incorporating an environment in which clinicians work alongside scientists at the forefront of food science, gut biology and healthcare research under one roof with one shared identity and entrance.

Bringing together the Institute of Food Research, the University of East Anglia and the gastrointestinal endoscopy facility of Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, the Quadram Institute conducts bench-to-bedside research and clinical care related to health and diet.

Within a hierarchy of spaces, the clinical research facility and patient treatment areas are more private to protect patients’ and participants’ confidentiality, whilst the research space is open to showcase the science within.

 

Future proofing and flexible facilities

There are also many lessons the NHS needs to learn from when designing the next generation of healthcare facilities and buildings.

Purely clinically-led design isn’t working and must be supplemented by research-led thinking that inspires sustainable, adaptable buildings offering operational flexibility.

We must also champion strong and proven healthcare, research and technology hubs, such as the MaRS Discovery District in Toronto and UCSF Medical Center at Mission Bay, as the best breeding ground for future start-ups and world-leading innovation.

Yes, many garage start-ups have turned into multinational powerhouses but most new ventures will have a higher chance of success from being based in well-connected places that benefit from local cultural and heritage amenities.

 

Technology drives talent

Finally is the undeniable importance of digitalisation and AI to the future of healthcare and driving the talent that will drive healthcare forward. It will be fascinating to see how emerging technologies will advance the practice of medicine, improve health and empower patients to be active participants in their own care. Trends in digital diagnostics, robotics and data are allowing hospitals to put the human experience first.

For example, many hospitals in the United States are already being designed with extra-wide corridors, allowing robots to deliver medicine and other critical supplies directly to patient rooms. Meantime, IBM’s Watson is being utilized to diagnosis illnesses — especially those that are hard to detect — which then impacts the experience of patients and the quality of care they receive.

The NHS needs to sell a vision of the future now, instil public confidence and demonstrate it has a plan to create a future for itself. What’s needed is true collaboration, openness and innovation, inclusivity, community and a need to think flexibly. Don’t let’s design for just one need but let’s create a sustainable health and wellbeing community for the next 70 years.

Banner image courtesy of Timothy Soar/NBBJ.

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