A Healthy Building Starts with Light

Because disruption to the circadian system is linked to chronic disease, it’s critical to rethink lighting levels in buildings.

June 28, 2021

Lighting Designer

The CDC reports that six in ten Americans suffer from a chronic disease, and many suffer from two or more conditions. A growing body of evidence shows that repeated disruption to the circadian system — the rhythms that regulate the timing of the biological systems in the human body — lays the foundation for the development of chronic diseases. For example, researchers have linked chronic circadian and sleep disruption to metabolic disease, cardiovascular diseases, cognitive disease and cancer.

The circadian system is aligned to the 24-hour day through external cues, namely light exposure and timing of eating. In the U.S., people spend on average about 90% of their day indoors. While architects and employers can’t control when people eat, we can and do control people’s light exposure. Light exposure in the workplace, healthcare environments and schools, where people typically spend a third of their day, has a profound influence on the overall wellness for individuals and communities. Troublingly, research has also shown that conventional light levels in buildings and architecture in design are too low to adequately entrain the circadian system, creating environments that undermine human health.

To Create Healthier Buildings, Rethink Lighting
As the world rebounds from the Covid-19 crisis, now is the time to reconsider how to approach lighting in buildings. Here are some key guidelines to consider:

1. Lighting in the workplace matters. Research has shown that providing a high light level earlier in the day can improve sleep, but also increase resiliency to light exposure at night. The lighting environment of workplaces has a profound impact on people’s circadian systems. Designing buildings to increase daylight availability and lighting systems by providing a biologically active, high light level in the early part of the day can reduce the impact of light exposure at night and stabilize people’s circadian system health.

2. Go beyond conventional standards. Traditional lighting guidelines are based on industry standards (the Illuminating Engineering Society in the U.S.), which set light levels needed to adequately perform a visual task. Yet following these conventional guidelines is insufficient for the circadian system. Light levels generally need to be 1.25 to 2 times higher to be biologically active for the circadian system than the typical office standard. Instead, use circadian centric metrics, such as the Circadian Stimulus model developed by the Lighting Research Center, to analyze daylighting. Furthermore, incorporate lighting systems that set targets to a more biologically effective light level.

3. Start with daylight. It is feasible to incorporate additional electrical lighting loads to provide more light, but this can increase energy use and potentially counter sustainability efforts. Instead, it’s essential to first increase the amount of daylight delivered into buildings. This is no small task. The challenge is to find ways to do this without sacrificing energy performance — an imperative to mitigate climate change — or increasing visual glare. One strategy to maximize daylight availability is to evaluate different building forms and orientations for circadian-effective daylight availability in the early design stages of a project. In addition, incorporate passive shading and glazing systems to increase daylight delivery by reducing glare and heating loads, and therefore the amount of time daylight is blocked by blinds.

4. Prioritize where to supplement electric lighting. To get the most value and save resources, be strategic on where to implement electric lighting supplementation for the circadian system. Target the spaces where people spend the most time, especially in the early part of the day. If budgets are tight, consider carving out a few key zones that are light-rich, so people can work in those areas when they want. In the workspace, circadian table lamps can also provide a high-impact, low-energy solution, so long as they are accepted and used by employees.

5. A color shifting system is nice, but not necessary. While color shifting can have a positive psychological effect of simulating the passage of time, research shows that shifting to a cooler white light can actually reduce the biological effect on the circadian system through something called the subadditivity effect. Counter to traditional thinking and marketing, spaces may need to add more light to overcome this deficiency with a cooler white light, which can further increase energy loads. To decrease energy use and be just as, if not more, effective from a biological perspective, implement a simpler, cost-effective approach. For example, use static white light with a simple control system to increase light levels in the morning and reduce them in the late afternoon.

The circadian system, health and light are intrinsically linked. Access to daylight in the workplace, healthcare environments, schools, homes and other indoor spaces is not just a nice-to-have, but an imperative to human wellness and creativity. By taking a science-based circadian lighting approach, building owners, tenants, architects and lighting designers can strengthen society’s resilience to circadian disruption. Combined, the above strategies can improve the health of communities around the world and simultaneously combat the chronic disease and climate change crises.


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Staying Human in a Digital Workplace

Ten Research-Based Ideas to Improve Hybrid Work Settings

June 17, 2021

Partner, NBBJ


A major disruption on many fronts, the Covid-19 pandemic also challenges nearly every standard methodology around work. The resulting tension provides an opportunity to ground daily work habits in a deeper understanding of human nature. People seek meaning in their jobs through multiple ways, especially through the context of relationships — a trying predicament inherent in a remote or physically distanced workplace. Effective outcomes require recognizing such limitations and using research-backed design strategies to support the agency, behavior, creativity and unpredictable beauty that ultimately makes us human.

As organizations transition back to the physical office, many will continue remote working policies or create hybrid workplaces with a mix of off-site and co-located workers. Depending on organizational vision, mode of work and personal preference, this approach will present both unique challenges and opportunities. Through NBBJ’s Fellowship Program with brain scientist Dr. John Medina, we identify 10 research-based ideas for improving engagement and productivity in these new workplace experiences.

Meeting Strategies for Hybrid Work Settings
In hybrid workplaces, a significant amount of communication occurs via videoconferencing and other technologies. Creating productive remote work environments that more closely approximate in-person meetings are critical to addressing a major challenge of hybrid workplaces — remote workers may be at a disadvantage due to technology gaps and lower visibility.

Additionally, while technology transforms aspects of how we work, it is often still an impoverished form of communication. Zoom fatigue is real — video meetings are more exhausting than in-person conversation because the brain must fill in gaps of information it normally gets through face-to-face conversations. Our reliance on body language is so strong that we often only hear 25% of what is said (and surprisingly retain only half at that).

With that in mind, here are five key protocols that can help address these limitations to create a better remote work environment:

Share Meeting Materials in Advance
Meeting organizers should provide written meeting agendas, materials and goals prior to meetings. This approach compels organizers to crystallize their thoughts in advance and allows attendees — whether remote or collocated — to prepare. The outcome is a true discussion that encourages synchronous interaction versus a presentation.

Make Meetings as Interactive as Possible
Meeting attendees should read the agenda and materials prior to the meeting and come prepared with ideas, comments and questions. The organizer can begin with a brief summary, but then move quickly to a more interactive discussion. The more interactive the exchange, the better the material is retained.

Ask Questions and Clarify
Remote communication increases the odds of being misunderstood, so it is crucial that everyone feels empowered to ask for clarification as soon as a point of confusion arises. This helps ensure clearer communication; if a frequent practice, it also helps impart a feeling of safety in the group, which tends to be in short supply in remote settings.

Practice Good Listening Skills
Everyone can improve their listening skills. Research shows that great listeners actively comment and ask questions, and avoid pressuring the speaker even when tough questions are posed. This supports cooperative conversations in which no one dominates or gets defensive. Keep in mind that people engage in different ways—a lack of response may not indicate disinterest, but that another approach is needed to get input.

Rethink Virtual Platforms
The above-noted behaviors can be supported by communication tools that bring more of the human body into the field of vision, and use color and other visual elements to capture non-verbal cues. More visibility into the workplace for remote workers can improve awareness of others and prompt important unplanned connections.


Design and Workplace Strategies for Hybrid Work Settings
Individuals have the highest awareness of what habits and preferences work best for them. Forward-thinking organizations must leverage this knowledge to create processes and spaces that enable people to not only reconnect to one another when the pandemic recedes, but to map out their optimal workday. This is particularly important in hybrid workplaces, where, as more workers shift back and forth between office and remote work, there will be an increased need for individual flexibility.

To support the balance between individual prosperity and organizational success, here are five strategies to consider in creating a workplace that reflects both:

Understand Team Needs and Preferences
People have different preferences for how, when and where they work. Developing question sets that explore how these preferences vary across teams can be a useful, straightforward step towards creating more productive team dynamics and tailored schedules that take individual work habits into account. For larger companies, a framework that enables teams to manage themselves will likely lead to faster overall growth and camaraderie than a single blanket policy.

Encourage Personal Agency
Research shows that encouraging choice reduces stress and improves job satisfaction. It can also help people make better decisions to support their personal and professional development, and build understanding as to how, when and where they feel most productive. People offered more choice in how they organize and collaborate should arrive at the best setup for their individual needs. Configurable “kit of parts” spaces designed for smaller autonomous teams can provide significant flexibility and enable teams to experiment to find optimal work arrangements. Consider how this benefit can extend to remote environments where some may not have true agency due to apartment size or housemates. Also acknowledge that agency can be intimidating—develop a means to evaluate how well these choices are benefitting individual employee satisfaction and growth over time.

Support Diversity and Autonomy
The pandemic popularizes flexible work models which are likely to become a more permanent feature. Expanded and unconventional work shifts that encompass remote and office modes can be supported and coordinated to provide individuals with the work schedule that best aligns with their chronotype, work habits and role and life responsibilities. With many companies looking to reduce the number of workstations, amenities will also become more important as spaces that support a wider variety of individual and team work modes.

Promote Wellbeing
The health and wellbeing of the workforce is critical to organizational success, impacting everything from job turnover to performance and brand image. Organizations can consider realigning corporate values and priorities and developing new success metrics to support physical and mental health. Workplace design can incorporate strategies that support movement like stairs and walking paths while offering a connection to nature that may not always be possible in a remote setting. Wellness amenities that employees can’t get at home will be a valued in-person benefit.

Maintain the Intimacy of Working From Home
The working from home experiment builds deeper connections among some colleagues as they “invite” each other into their homes. In hybrid workplaces, it will be important to find ways of retaining and promoting those personal connections by imbuing them into the office. Layouts which group workers into smaller team areas with flexible furniture configurations, for example, can encourage greater intimacy and personalization. The harshness of a conference room compared to the softness of a home or hospitality environment will be readily felt, perhaps underscoring the gap between remote and in-person. Finding a more seamless transition that is able to be personalized in both realms will be critical.

The past year has initiated a chaotic yet revealing series of conditions that many are just beginning to comprehend. However, just as we grapple with these learnings – some new, some decades old – promising results from vaccines plus the desire for clarity in the year to come has created an urgency for organizations to define their next workplace now. The obvious danger lies in reacting so quickly that the next workplace becomes the previous workplace, or even worse, the unsustainable workplace.

For companies navigating this crisis, this transitory period has been ripe with opportunities to learn and reimagine, driving towards spaces that capture what a work experience should have been. The result can be a fluid environment that enables people to be their most productive selves while engaging in a deeply meaningful way. Humans have survived for 40,000 years because of their ability to socialize, adapt and rely on individual talents and strengths. The science behind this history is critical for its future – to stay human in a hybrid world, don’t forget to be humane.


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Socializing At Work Is About More Than Just Fun And Games.

The business benefit of relationships with colleagues and how the design of post-Covid offices can foster valuable connections.

June 8, 2021

Principal, Workplace Strategist, NBBJ

Editor’s Note: This is the fifth article in a six-part series on five different work modes. The first piece outlined a framework for each work mode, while subsequent posts explore a single work mode in greater depth — including focus, collaborate, learn, socialize and rest.

This post was co-authored by Kelly Griffin and Robert Mankin.


In the early days of office work, socializing and building friendships at work was not tolerated. In fact, it was perceived as taking attention away from the task at hand. The world has since learned, particularly during the pandemic, that socializing at work is a critical building block of trust, innovation and wellbeing in organizations. Numerous research studies, beginning with a pioneer 1920s study on a team of factory workers at Western Electric Company, show that social support and group interaction between colleagues create powerful, positive benefits not just for employees, but companies too. This includes greater social cohesion, wellness and a healthier life overall, which fuels higher engagement, productivity and organizational success.

Given these immense benefits, social activities in the workplace are essential for healthy employees and companies. However, once the pandemic forced most organizations to work from home, many people lost this vital in-person interaction. Remote work has inhibited important face-to-face social connections with colleagues, teams and the community as a whole.

In the post-Covid office, it will be more important than ever to have space to unite teams and celebrate success, to boost wellness and reduce stress. The below outlines four ways the workplace can create comfortable, welcoming experiences that encourage genuine human connection.

Provide alluring social spaces that address movement, culture and routines to foster a natural rhythm of shared connections. As social activities in the workplace are unique to each company, team and individual, it is essential to offer a variety of areas in the office — from the comforting to the unexpected — to support both routine and unplanned social moments. This can include rethinking the experience of the “journey.” Transition or “in-between” spaces typically used for travel such as hallways, paths or stairwells can become unique areas for connection. This can also mean offering alternative, social gathering zones that go beyond multipurpose meeting rooms. Read on for a few strategies to help employees build closer connections and friendships.

  • Explore existing social moments and routines — including their higher purpose and goals. As with other types of work activities, it’s key to first examine and establish a culture of socializing and building relationships in the workplace. Consider guiding questions, such as: What is the intent for socializing? What types of social engagement are most valued or preferred? How can we build social cohesion with our teams? Keep in mind the three main scales of social activities, such as larger team gatherings like community networking events, smaller group connections including lunches, and one-on-one chats like a coffee break. To help build community within and outside an organization’s walls, office spaces should address social preferences that make it easy (and fun) to organically connect.
  • Consider the journey. Even before an employee arrives at the office, the meeting room, or their desk, it’s important to consider the sequence of spaces that come before. This could include the larger experience of traveling through a headquarters’ campus from the bus stop or parking lot, through a building lobby or a shared welcoming area or café. How can these areas promote opportunities for shared social connections? One way is to create irresistible and engaging places for serendipitous discovery. For example, a workplace headquarters project in South Korea features a series of pathways that cascade up 15 stories to become a unique walking route primed for social interactions. Colleagues can stroll up and down its ramps for not just walking meetings, but for informal conversations too, and also cross paths with visitors. In addition, benches and nooks along the way provide natural moments to extend a conversation. The outdoors can be a part of the journey as well. For example, a special arrival and exit zone can simulates a walk in the woods with lush native plants, gently winding paths and natural materials like stone and wood. Ultimately, it’s not about the distance traveled, but the experience of the journey and the movement through space as a shared experience.
  • Create a compelling destination. Creating “destination” social spaces encourages colleagues to get out of their normal routine and most important, feel comfortable enough to build strong social connections. For instance, a lobby in an office building or front desk zone in a workplace can become an interactive destination that welcomes and delights employees, visitors and local residents. Inviting digital media walls and installations can be tailored with inspiring graphics that change depending on the occasion, movement or touch, to create truly customized environments.
  • Enhance the ritual of socializing through design. Finally, design can encourage a regular cadence of socializing for better idea-generation and problem solving. For example, it can be helpful to provide spaces that support everyday routines or special traditions to help remove barriers. One way is to build relationships around the ritual of hospitality, including meals or drinks. For instance, if a team typically gets a morning coffee or connects over a Friday lunch to discuss ideas, inviting, “neutral” spaces for gathering can help further these friendships to create a sense of belonging. This could include cozy seating zones inside an office that mimic the feel of gathering together in a favorite pub. Outside, a central campfire space with outdoor staircases nearby can host large employee gatherings. In addition, underutilized areas in a building’s ground floor or lobby can become pop-up spaces for partnerships with local restaurants, coffee shops and juice bars. Outdoor areas can also become valuable community resources for connection. At Samsung’s North America headquarters, nature-filled courtyards transform into areas for fitness, recreation and family activities. This creates a unique workplace that is both restorative and generative — better integrated into the social fabric for improved relationship-building and idea generation.

Socializing is critical to trust, learning and growth. The workplace of today — and tomorrow — can foster a sense of belonging, providing opportunities for employees to connect with one another and the community in a way that is unique to their values. Ultimately, teams that have strong social bonds are more likely to stay with an organization longer, generate new and more innovative ideas and deliver work more effectively.

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